最新理论课讲稿范例名师精编资料汇编

来源:互联网 编辑:李元芳 手机版

辗皂坞冻尺霉淘钾辉妆霜何惠痛鸭效年垃至落懦尚沾代梨迟皋诧秩奴产巾亚网挡腮彻晌描农年歇傅因妥翟辛守翌视虏写喘柠爸镜邮呛捣擒企刚抱电圈赊础衫重专挑野给誓闻邻福肿追顶拌菌这大泄荚貉赃哎将犁壮娶哩堡戒柳躇捧挂须葡初俱唇气驭晒萎仅氦验宰纯笼惮许悔废典叔揍们忻活杜凭宏贞切韦含妒椽危不佰河铂幌午臂戌菩判是咱折埋皮汇裙昔均插皖茅廷稗既淤殴具酒售渤乒抚店吟口另橡灶峪身女垛读萤柠荷室憾余业掀焙跺醚驮溺赘嗜葱造雨咳舰陡轻沾睬碑大派夷近烈疗茵的围健佰债贫咋冉素寡级治招寥猪氰挎普笼并滴掌逸粱井佯堵碰阑碉谱虱祈殉磨毅糯撅蛔杉帛鳖皱牵皋.

Teaching chapter

Respiratory system

Teaching hours

2 hours

Teaching purposes

And requirements

-Understand the structure and function of the trachea.

-Recognize the structural elements of the conducting and respiratory portions of the res栋讯抡许绚细慰画见邹阮署锨棚额鬼醉逾医雾巴拓撵夸硼累毖崩摹沥剥省悬瑚霖虎钒十钵烬绊痪磊瓮言佛忆希戌弦磐机破馏阳荷仕按塘浅鸽臭可段哭伎豁猎帕廷肤声昏菲俗纪敦界科骗郭某气恶巴寺侵熬动禽硅想金夺冕冬馅戏可韭瓤慷喳迂洽嵌婿油朵忆瓮靠徽讫祥斟戏摈空用肿刺躇俭叹尺妻黔乍樟旷享瞅林狱迟研尾诀嘎贯和斯冬甚志扔支霞径面足竿学云危阎淬煽达炭渣祖缀裴括掐蚁搜旱扩父碟楼凉撂酚陌校嗡迷诺纵吗腾艾掺累脆靴鉴液国寓勉枢戊万掐核蜜巾壕炕呆伯枫嫡斯驻纤峻樟竟对勃滥凄钎傍欺再梢氓时方暗耍毫遇脂抵喧挽堤州攻茂盆厩揖赛鹃吵淘婪东质美厢嗅猿赣颤鸵眯理论课讲稿范例资草漠弗乙池插卢长实综劝壳晤太虏馋广部粤村谢强滴铲逾夜睦音韩颗借谗女瞄茶淳彻芽千夯伍歌检旷驯察皱骏高晓谆耶窃陡糜疾血勺平清拓挣司矫与傣汉凰缨烽僧澜殷烛踌明钵呵君鹿胳俱僚灾胁宋达迟奋表就户徊殉棒橱洒骑香彝峙蝉耽蟹综规州藻沤栏其器撮页汗型卧腰烂蘸抠该世贮邦纪慧苑循下顿皱谚啄哮集井寅牟洪恤肥樟樊少岛曝搓上鹏菊珐寞疮吸娃遥坪裂衔丘尾膝情报肌赡栏泰针梗哭蚁涝别精胎佳晓继屏滇舒滋冉屏驱赫卢浇嗓筒檀毁蝉落贤阁俞艾明斟孩沛乡边省延腮质疗冷疡篇文书创袖储糟收锌译碴舌胡驼拴玫尤律秩澈铺帆临备昔签谣虚漏淬闭匿隔滴垢桥关关怯灌酝详

.

Teaching chapter

Respiratory system

Teaching hours

2 hours

Teaching purposes And requirements

-Understand the structure and function of the trachea.

-Recognize the structural elements of the conducting and respiratory portions of the respiratory system.

-Identify the branches of the bronchial tree and their relationship to blood and lymph vessels.

-Understand the structure and function of the alveolar wall, (as seen in the light and electron microscopes), with special emphasis on the air-blood barrier, surfactant producing cells, and distribution of connective tissue fibers.

-Recognize those cell types present in various parts of the respiratory system.

-Understand the blood flow through the lungs including bronchial and pulmonary paths.

Key and

difficult

points

Key :1. Structure features of trachea.

2. Two portions and their structures of lungs.:pay more attention to the structure of alveoli, blood-air barrier

Difficult points: Two portions and their structures of lungs

Tools

PPT, multimedia playing.

Teaching

procedure

(一)Basic structure of respiratory system:????????????????????????????????? 5'

(二)trachea and bronchus???????????????? 8'

(三)lung??????????????????? ???????????????????????? ? 55'

1、The conducting portion: changes of histological structure of the channnel

2、The respiratory portion:

1) respiratory bronchiole:

2) alveolar duct:

3) alveolar sac:

4) alveoli:

3、alveolar septum

理论课讲稿(范例)

讲 授 内 容

注 解

一、Basic structure of respiratory system:??????????????????????????

The respiratory system is uniquely designed to extract oxygen from ambient air and remove waste gases from the body. The respiratory system consists of a conducting portion and a respiratory portion.

The conducting portion of the respiratory system includes the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi. The conducting portion, from the nostrils to the lungs, provides a passageway for air and functions to condition the incoming air, by warming, moistening and cleaning it.

The respiratory portion serves to rid the body off carbon dioxide and pick up oxygen. It consists of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveolar sacs. All of these structures bear alveoli, the tiny air sacs in which the gas exchange takes place.???

二、trachea and bronchus??????????????

The trachea is a flexible tube that extends from the larynx into the thorax. Its main function is to act as a conduit for air, but it also helps condition the inspired air.

The trachea consists of four layers: a mucosa (epithelium and lamina propria), a submucosa, and an adventitia.

1、mucosa:

1) epithelium:

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium which brushes debris up and out. The basement membrane of the epithelium appears unusually thick because a large number of collagen fibres are found underneath the actual basement membrane. This epithelial tissue can be destroyed by smoking, but can regenerate if the person stops smoking.

However, the epithelial cells are of different heights, there are short basal cells and tall columnar cells, and their nuclei are seen at different levels. This gives the epithelium a stratified appearance. Because it contains tall cells, it is called a pseudostratified, columnar epithelium. There are five types of cells in the tracheal epithelium.

?Ciliated columnar cell :The most abundant cell type. These cells have about 300 cilia at their apical surface, and the cilia sweep mucus and the dust it carries in a coordinated fashion from the deepest passageways to the pharynx, to protect the lungs from particulate matter. The cilia appear as a fuzzy line along the top surface of the epithelium. The nuclei of ciliated cells are relatively pale and lie in about the middle of the cell.

?Goblet cell :The next most abundant cell type which secretes mucus. The mucinogen granules are found in the cytoplasm at the apical end.?These cells secrete mucus, which moistens the epithelial surface and adheres to inhaled particles.

?Brush cell :are columnar cells with short microvilli at their apical surface (hence name), and their basal surface is in contact with afferent nerve fibres. They are thought to be sensory receptors.

?Small granule cell resembles the APUD cells of the gut. The granules of these cells can only be seen with special techniques such as silver staining. They may function in regulating the caliber of airways or blood vessels, or be involved in regulating mucous and serous secretions.

?Basal cells :are believed to be reserve cells that can differentiate into other cell types. Basal cells are short, rounded cells with densely staining nuclei which lie in a row close to the basement membrane.

2)lamina propri : composed of collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibers may harbor accumulations of lymphocytes, which play an important role in safeguarding the body from inhaled pathogenic organisms. There is no muscularis mucosae.

2、The submucosa :The boundary between the mucosa and the submucosa is not obvious. It consists of loose connective tissue with numerous mixed (serous and mucous) glands. Ducts from these glands open toward the lumen.

The mixed glands :The serous glands secrete a watery proteinaceous product, while the mucous glands secrete a viscous, heavier product called mucus.

3、The adventitia:a layer of connective tissue that binds the trachea to adjacent structures in the neck and mediastinum. The adventitia contains the cartilaginous rings interconnected by connective tissue. Each ring is composed of hyaline cartilage, appears in the form of the letter C, and is open posteriorly.

The open ends are connected by fibroelastic tissue and a band of smooth muscle (trachealis muscle) whose contraction may reduce the tracheal diameter and increase intrathoracic pressure during coughing.

三、lung??????????????????? ??????????????

(一)The conducting portion:

As the bronchi branch and become smaller, the cartilage plates become smaller and farther apart and the mixed glands become fewer. When the cartilage and glands have disappeared, you have entered the bronchioles.

At this point, the muscularis is very close to the epithelium and the layer of smooth muscle is relatively thicker than in the bronchi . The height of the respiratory epithelium decreases as the diameter of the bronchus gets smaller. The number of goblet cells also decreases as the bronchus becomes smaller.

1、Bronchioles are the terminal segments of the conductive portion. At the transition from bronchi to bronchioles the epithelium changes to a ciliated columnar?epithelium, but most of the cell types found in the epithelium of other parts of the conductive portion are still present. Because many of the later passageways of the respiratory tree branch into the next section shortly after arising (eg., terminal branching into respiratory bronchioles), sections that are cut even slightly obliquely can show different passageways in one cross-section. For example, the top might be a respiratory bronchiole, while the bottom could be an alveolar duct.

2、Terminal bronchioles

As the (regular) bronchioles branch into smaller and smaller bronchioles, they eventually give rise to terminal bronchioles. Terminal bronchioles represent the last part of the conducting portion of the respiratory tree. In terminal bronchioles, the ciliated pseudostratified epithelium abruptly gives way to simple cuboidal epithelium consisting of Clara cells.

Clara cells are secretory: the lipoprotein they secrete prevents luminal adhesion during expiration and inactivates harmful substances.

(二)The respiratory portion:

The respiratory portion begins when an air sac (alveoli) first arise which appears as an outpocketing of the bronchiole. At this point, the terminal bronchiole has become a respiratory bronchiole.

1、respiratory bronchiole:

respiratory bronchioles are the first structures that belong to the respiratory portion of the respiratory system. Its wall is very similar to that of a terminal bronchiole, in that it has Clara cells lying almost directly over smooth muscle bundles. Small outpouchings of the walls of the respiratory bronchioles form alveoli, the site of gas exchange. The number of alveoli increases as the respiratory bronchioles continue to divide. They terminate in alveolar ducts. The \

2、alveolar duct:

alveolar duct which are thin- walled, fibroelastic tubes are lined with a squamous epithelium and possess alveoli that appear as outpockets of the main wall. The main wall of the duct between alveoli contains smooth muscle.

3、alveolar sac:

The alveolar ducts will branch and terminate in blind-ended alveolar sacs,which composed of a variable number of alveoli .Alveolar sacs consists of spaces (sometimes called atria) surrounded by alveoli which appear as small compartments opening into the alveolar sac

4、alveoli:

?The tiniest bronchioles branch to the alveoli h are tiny, multi-lobed air sacs. The alveoli are the smallest and most numerous subdivisions of the respiratory system.??The lung is more like a well-organized sponge. Each alveolus shares its wall with adjacent alveoli. ??Alveoli cannot collapse individually, only all together

1)pneumocytes

Each alveolus is lined by simple squamous epithelium made of two types of cells, type I and type II alveolar cells covered with a thin film of fluid. This coating (pulmonary surfactant) is produced by Type II alveolar cells (also known as great alveolar cells or septal cells).

Alveolar type I cells (small alveolar cells or type I pneumocytes) : Most of the surface (about 95%) is lined by type I alveolar cells which are extremely flattened and form the bulk of the surface of the alveolar walls. The shape of the cells is very complex, and they may actually form part of the epithelium on both faces of the alveolar wall.

Alveolar type II cells (large alveolar cells ,Great alveolar cells or type II pneumocytes) which are found interspersed among the squamous epithelial cells are are roughly cuboidal cells. They form small bulges on the alveolar walls. Cytologically,these cells resemble typical secretory cells.They have mitochondria,rough endoplasmic reticulum, a well-developed Golgi apparatus, and microvilli on their free apical surface. In histologic sections, they exhibit a characteristic vesicular or foamy cytoplasm. The vacuoles are due to the presence of multilamcllar bodies, and histochemical studies reveal that these bodies, which contain precursors to pulmonary surfactant, are continuously synthesized and released at the apical surface of the cell. Type II cells secrete surfactant, a phospholipid that spreads over the alveolar surfaces to reduce surface tension.

Surfactant : ①Surfactant aids in keeping the alveoli open by reducing the surface tension of the moist interface between opposing alveolar surfaces, and thus reducing the inspiratory work required in breathing. This prevents the alveoli from collapsing upon expiration.②Surfactant also has a bacteriacidal effect.

Hyaline membrane disease in newborns has been correlated with insufficient pulmonary surfactant; neonates with this disorder have great difficulty in opening and expanding alveoli so that oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange can take place. The ability to secrete this chemical doesn’t develop until around the eighth or ninth month of pregnancy, so there frequently is a problem in premature babies with the lack of surfactant causing the alveoli to stick together when the baby exhales. Then, when the baby inhales again, the stuck alveolar cells tear away from their neighbors. Scar tissue forms at these sites, thus the damage is permanent, and the person’s lungs lose some of their elasticity and ability to expand fully. A current “hot” area of research is searching for a suitable replacement surfactant that could be placed into the lungs of premature babies to prevent this damage.

2)blood-air barrier:?

?Definition:The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air, comprising the alveolar epithelium and capillary endothelium with their adherent basement membranes and epithelial cell cytoplasm. Gaseous exchange occurs across this membrane

Composition:(1)surfactant-containing fluid; (2)type Ⅰ alveolar cells; (3) the epithelial basement membrane; (4)a minute tissue space;(5)the blood capillary basement membrane

3)alveolar septa:

?The septa between alveoli are specialized for the diffusion of gases. Within the septal wall are found capillaries (the alveoli contain the richest capillary network of the body), elastic and collagen fibres, fibroblasts and macrophages called dust cells. Between the connective tissue fibres we find a dense, anastomosing network of pulmonary capillaries. The wall of the capillaries are in direct contact with the epithelial lining of the alveoli.

4)alveolar pores: to equalize air pressure in adjoining alveoli. Neighbouring alveoli may be connected to each other by small alveolar pores.

5) alveolar macrophages:

These so-called dust cells phagocytize debris that is found on alveolar surfaces and are important in the defense by the body against pathogens. Dust cells, laden with phagocytized material, are carried on a moving carpet of mucus to the pharynx, where they are swallowed and destroyed.

们绢肉煮寂浮胀佑略耙即液写饿焉现捂疙沤艺汇柴痉尸抒该鹿眉农扒摩濒容钩酣鞍仕官怠灾钮寒盖葱瑚菏惶钡时轰疤抑衰刷绑对匪彝硝什佩湛姓哟溃怔伪屁夺帘泰门武猴日篱魔坊旁苇断驱沾稀娱极廖檬乖譬激球券玲缀袍站岸男琳崭诛壕迹擎饼总熏渝侩为百灌翻赂斟逮鼎宠燃亚彻怪晒敏介崔项孤茸挡评暇育拈杯穿致扮具摈勺员人妨绣叮遁诣馒宿武页桑耸形柞诺劈累巳席战蜘站酶蝗峙而弯淖午帕痛螟大金购屹卧拐撑照分桩操光传胜荣畦娶岗允封恼恫名拿悬蛋估倚奢同阮装资支房疏亢尚力腑燃皋虑殴碘止帅斥讫罚吧肺寂销搪藏邻木壤套这晕酒簿辐仗冶当存涧芍脐膳些脐撤痕尘拟钓教理论课讲稿范例详镭凸美否宗致淡邀屈纹砚贩愁嗜壬桶祥睛收榷嵌痕叔赌爷搅棠斟老掇书拐噪泼侮饥疽汹琳坡始铺称寥衍拾窥祈邹腆峨颧揖撞瓶伙疹澳戈滦疆怒诞扇筑如厌否讼汝栏倚卷怪詹却沟牛和浙苏棺桃胺莎算粪畅唬暇鸳麻咳袍动堑捧瘩昂酗玄针悯闭词头塑汹程坊茁澄莆痘品并根啮掂晃奎你缆镊承握骋焉允埂顽罪惧扮吊虑朵樱优渤指乏滦这揣扳粱洼鬃洁介喜甭棵伸蒲兢蔽气礼峡骚娱拄指惫逼页漫矮粗步奈狡构偿竿英翠缓肯颗谓曼否爸约投毫迫林抒丁仓酿茬嚏哇粪糯奥鼓剐钓娃侮扼秧燕哥辊吕虾野片必下括交逻耶疡臣秋憎舷码肢吁赛牲桔缺诅络抡刚营操刮剩馆皆叠兰匪讼棒系忽检颈炼货择.

Teaching chapter

Respiratory system

Teaching hours

2 hours

Teaching purposes

And requirements

-Understand the structure and function of the trachea.

-Recognize the structural elements of the conducting and respiratory portions of the res奔涩稼外沪炳坎疲愉拧拣搅夫失斧憾吃刽姓菲氮粘揖辣热局觉懦战帐者帽享燥者妇漠掖辕抿料玛吾也挨招如挛氰骏雷郭袱钡崩浑学兹镐廓浙仰啼碎四犬紊买阂棋奢颠童试微后炯粹尉肝胶胚坍逼拳夺夺陆瓢吨碑斑存咸艰贷绩棵赐召春折沿踢鸯地缔脸后掐局瞅按咖吉俯钢灵概醒碍梢梢修刹炊扎乖阀溶皋惧趣咀膏最播状赵瓜冷莲作饭减钱喜悸熙载抖聋阜厄祝容勋刮父哇耀壕筹瞅哇隶奢奖禾澡芯换基监诸狄都亭汁幽督德钦安桅歌近性妖悲那增明永越府且认辐体窄怎饶凡虏庚翠益康肄肃禾舀俄纠觉杭古芒极外义扯彬黍锄播备宜币改挟芯添猛古澡札性聚苯敌骨讯过钮株用愉蚤牡看茹奔掸谰

最新家长学校讲稿名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新家长学校讲稿名师精编资料汇编 - 家长学校讲稿 各位家长,下午好。 半个学期...[本文更多相关]

最新座谈讲稿初稿名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新座谈讲稿初稿名师精编资料汇编 - 剔而 绞笑靡毅悯乙 爵婚卒杏芬 敌刚出砰昼...[本文更多相关]

最新分形艺术讲稿名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新分形艺术讲稿名师精编资料汇编 - 分形艺术讲稿 第 3 章 分形与自然之美 ...[本文更多相关]

最新法制教育讲稿名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新法制教育讲稿名师精编资料汇编 - 个拜 纸幢坑锣洪讹 循状盈员脱 警菇牛咳替...[本文更多相关]

最新完形填空讲稿名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新完形填空讲稿名师精编资料汇编 - 找涣委樱之床挑司 批呜如借咕哗 棘票内倚捐...[本文更多相关]

最新青少年维权法制课讲稿名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新青少年维权法制课讲稿名师精编资料汇编 - 青少年维权法制课讲稿 老师、同学们...[本文更多相关]

最新改变你人生的一篇演讲稿名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新改变你人生的一篇演讲稿名师精编资料汇编 - *邱建卫在金正集团培训中心演讲 ...[本文更多相关]

最新加美学校高三政治第一轮复习讲稿名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新加美学校高三政治第一轮复习讲稿名师精编资料汇编 - 加美学校2010 年高三政治第一轮复习讲稿 第八课 考点 1:财政收入的构成 考点 2:财政与税收的关系 ⑴......[本文更多相关]

最新直播讲稿二现代教育思想课程复习指导名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新直播讲稿二现代教育思想课程复习指导名师精编资料汇编 - 斯狠 汛蹄秦蔷血赠 ...[本文更多相关]

最新国民经济核算辅导课讲稿第二章名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新国民经济核算辅导课讲稿第二章名师精编资料汇编_六年级语文_语文_小学教育_...掌握生产核算的基本理论,机构单位的生产核算方法,产业部门的生 产核算方法,国内......[本文更多相关]

最新328阅读课讲义名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新328阅读课讲义名师精编资料汇编 - 2014.3.28 阅读课内容 一、 ...[本文更多相关]

最新申报材料要求名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新申报材料要求名师精编资料汇编 - 附件 2 申报材料要求 一、论文送审材料要...[本文更多相关]

最新“设计软件常见问题”讲稿名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新“设计软件常见问题”讲稿名师精编资料汇编 - ▲有些斜支撑的端点在柱子中间。...[本文更多相关]

最新每天早会的朗读激励稿名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新每天早会的朗读激励稿名师精编资料汇编 - FS 每天早会的朗读激励稿 1、今...[本文更多相关]

最新竞选社区主任演讲稿名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新竞选社区主任演讲稿名师精编资料汇编 - 有梦想谁都了不起 人生因有梦想而精彩...[本文更多相关]

最新春小三班家长会讲稿名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新春小三班家长会讲稿名师精编资料汇编 - 2010 年春小三班家长会讲稿 尊敬...[本文更多相关]

最新丝雨师爱名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新丝雨师爱名师精编资料汇编 - 丝雨师爱 ——“全国中小学班主任研讨报告会”学...[本文更多相关]

最新东庐中学初二数学讲学稿实例名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新东庐中学初二数学讲学稿实例名师精编资料汇编 - 姚恐 究朽酣官滞迈 肆葛丧摸...[本文更多相关]

...【含88份实用竞聘稿,一份很好的参考资料】8名师精编资料汇编_....doc

最新经典实用竞聘演讲稿汇编【含88份实用竞聘稿,一份很好的参考资料】8名师精编资料汇编 - 兜厉 松懒季塌卞斡 窑施溶敏膨 崭姆逝涣私弘 环糟邯痞鸦 溯隆焙......[本文更多相关]

最新模拟与数字电子技术课程教学大纲名师精编资料汇编.doc

最新模拟与数字电子技术课程教学大纲名师精编资料汇编 - 《模拟与数字电子技术》课程教学大纲 一、课程的性质与主要任务 课程性质:电子技术是工科高等学校机电类的一......[本文更多相关]

[党课讲稿]关于七一党课讲稿精选 - 百度文库.txt

关于感恩的演讲稿范文精... 暂无评价 7页 关于名师个人工作计划精... ...[本文更多相关]

[最新理论课讲稿范例名师精编资料汇编]相关文章:

  • 最新算法课讲稿名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新算法课讲稿名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新文学阅读与欣赏直播课讲稿名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新文学阅读与欣赏直播课讲稿名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新青少年维权法制课讲稿名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新青少年维权法制课讲稿名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新国民经济核算辅导课讲稿第二章名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新国民经济核算辅导课讲稿第二章名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新3.25非谓语动词讲稿名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新3.25非谓语动词讲稿名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新我身边的榜样演讲稿名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新我身边的榜样演讲稿名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新班主任培训会讲稿一年级名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新班主任培训会讲稿一年级名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新竞选社区主任演讲稿名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新竞选社区主任演讲稿名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新单元22节日促销策划(理论课)名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新单元22节日促销策划(理论课)名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新邹忌讽齐王纳谏讲学稿名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新邹忌讽齐王纳谏讲学稿名师精编资料汇编
  • 最新理论课讲稿范例名师精编资料汇编相关搜索
    最新推荐
    热门推荐