[免费下载]非谓语动词有3种形式

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非谓语动词有3种形式:不定式、动名词和分词

(一)不定式 具有名词、形容词和副词的性质。

动词不定式由“to + 动词原形”构成,其否定形式是“not to do ”,不定式可以带宾语或状语构成不定式短语,没有人称和数的变化,但有时态和语态的变化。不定式可做主语、宾语、状语、标语和定语,但不能单独做谓语。不定式的逻辑主语有时用“for/of +名词或代词宾格”构成。

主动 被动 一般式 to do to be done 进行式 to be doing 完成式 to have done to have been done

一 作主语。不定式做主语时,往往放在谓语之后,用it 做形式主语。

1. To see is to believe.

2. It’s difficult (for us) to learn English.

3. It’s foolish of her to believe him.= She is foolish to believe him.

二 作表语

1. His aim is to win the first prize.

2. All we can do is (to) wait.

One’s dream / aim / ambition / wish / The first step / What I want to do is to…

三 作宾语

1. He demanded to be told the truth.

2. He pretended to be doing his homework / to have fallen asleep when Mother came in.

(decide / fail / manage / refuse / pretend / choose / agree / hope/ plan / promise / make up

one’s mind + to do )

3. I don’t know what to do.

(decide / find out / know / learn / consider etc + 疑问词 + to do )

4. Anyone can become a better scholar if he wants to.

---Are you on holiday? ---No, but I’d like to be.

四 作宾补或主补

1. I’ll have him say something at the meeting.

have sb do = get sb to do

feel; hear / listen to; let / have / make; see / watch / look at / notice / observe sb do

但被动语态要+ to, let 例外

Listen to me read the text.

He is often listened to sing the song.

He was let go by the police.

2.He ordered his men to fire.

wish / advise / persuade / allow / permit / want / tell / ask / expect / order / require / request sb

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to do

suggest / hope / agree / demand / arrange sb to do

3. He is said to be doing the work of next year.

It’s said that he is doing the work of next year.

sb + seem / appear / happen / be said / be reported / be known /

be found / be believed + to do / to be doing / to have ( been) done

It + seem / appear / happen / be said … / be believe that….

六 作定语

1. I have a lot of work to do / no pen to write with.

2. the first to come / to be awarded the Nobel Prize

3. the last person to do such a thing 最不愿意做…的人

4. the house to be built next year

比较: the house being built now / build last year

注意(1)做定语的不定式如果是不及物动词,或者不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的地点、工具等,不定式后应有相应的介词。例如:He is looking for a room to live in.She has no knife to cut with.

但是,不定式修饰的名词如果是time 、place 或way ,不定式后面的介词习惯上要省去。例如:He has no money and no place to live.

注意(2)做定语的不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式或动作的承受者时,不定式可以用主动语态,也可以用被动语态,但含义有所不同。比较:

A)Have you anything to send?

你有东西要寄吗?(不定式to send 的动作执行者是you )

B)Have you anything to be sent?

你有什么(要我或别人)寄的东西吗?(to be sent 的动作执行者是被省略的me 或someone else )

七 作状语 (表示目的、原因、结果或条件)

目的 to / in order to / so as to

结果 enough to / too…to / so…as to / such…as to / only to

1. The bus stopped to pick up passengers. (目的)

2. He set out early in order to / so as to catch the first bus.

= In order to / To catch the first bus he set out early.

3. I’m sorry to have kept you waiting.(原因)

4. I hurried to school only to be told it was a holiday. (结果)

only to do sth 表示出于预料之外的结果

5. To look at him, you would like him.(条件)

不定式的否定形式

She kept silent about the accident so as not to lose his job.

不定式的完成和被动式

The book seems to have been translated into English.

案。

但是: The book is difficult to understand.

I have a letter to write / a lot of work to do.

He is to blame for the accident.

Ⅱ动名词具有名词的性质

主动被动

一般式doing being done

完成式having done having been done

一作主语

1. Seeing is believing. = To see is to believe.

2. It’s no use / no good / useless doing sth. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.

3. Being forced to leave the classroom made him feel embarrassed.

二作表语

1. My job is teaching English.

比较: One’s dream / aim / ambition / The first step is to do sth.

动名词作表语, 可与主语交换位置, 句子成立; 现在分词则不能。

三作宾语(动宾/ 介宾/ it 作形式宾语)

1. I appreciate hearing from you again.

2. He doesn’t feel like eating anything.

四作定语

1. a writing desk

2. a swimming pool 动名词作定语表示被修饰名词的用途

比较: a sleeping boy = a boy who is sleeping 现在分词作定语表示被修饰名词的动作

Ⅲ现在分词和过去分词具有形容词和副词的性质

一作表语

The news is exciting. We are excited.

二作宾补或主补

感官动词和实意动词see / hear / watch / look at / notice / feel

Make/have/leave/get

四作定语

1.falling leaves / fallen leaves

2.a friend living in London

3.the book written by Lu Xun 五作状语

1. Be careful while crossing the street.

Having been shown the lab, they were taken to see the library.

Hearing the news, they jumped with joy. (时间)

2. Being repaired, the swimming pool doesn’t open today.

Not having received her letter, she wrote another.

Encouraged by his teacher, he decided to follow a music career. (原因)

3. Given enough time, we could do it much better.

Turning left, you will find the shop. (条件)

4. They stood there waiting for a bus.

The old man went out of the hospital, supported by his son.

We walked as fast as we could, hoping to catch the first bus.(伴随)

5. The new machine works twice as fast, thus greatly reducing cost.

His parents died, leaving him an orphan.分词表示自然的结果;不定式则表示预料之外的结果6. Though / Even if invited, he will not come (让步)

※独立主格结构

分词作状语时, 其逻辑主语必须与句子的主语一致, 否则必须有自己独立的逻辑主语Seen from the top of the building, the city looked very charming.

Time permitting, we’ll have a discussion.

独立主格结构由名词/代词+分词/形容词/副词等构成,在句中作原因、条件、时间和伴随状语

1. There being no bus, we had to walk home.

2. Weather permitting, we will have a picnic.

with 结构

1. with + n + doing

with so many patients waiting outside a boy

2. with + n + done

with his eyes fixed on the blackboard

3. with + n + to do

with so much work to do

非谓语动词专项练习

1. ___ anything about the accident, he went to work as usual.

A . Don’t know B. not to know C. not knowing D. not to be knowing

2. the next morning she found the man __in bed, dead.

A. lying

B. lie

C. lay

D. laying

3. he had his leg __in the match yesterday.

A .to break B. broken C. break D. breaking

4. most of the people __ to the party were famous scientists.

A. invited

B. to invite

C. being invited

D. inviting

5. Do you know the boy ___under the tree?

A. lay

B. lain

C. laying

D. lying

6. ---Good morning. Can I help you?

I‘d like to have this package ___

A. be weighed

B. to be weighed

C. to weigh

D. weighed

8._____more attention, the trees could have grown better.

A. given

B. to give

C. giving

D. having given

9. the murderer was brought in, with his hand ___behind his back..

A. being tied

B. having tied

C. to be tied

D. tied

10. the secretary worked late into the night ,___a long speech for the president.

A. to prepare

B. preparing

C. prepared

D. was preparing

11. she’s upstairs ____ a letter.

A. writes

B. is writing

C. write

D. writing

12. it was so cold that they kept the fire ___all night.

A. to burn

B. burn

C. burning

D. burned

13.the speaker raised his voice but still couldn’t make himself ___

A. hear

B. to hear

C. hearing

D. heard

14. _______ a reply, he decided to write again.

A. not receiving

B. receiving not

C. not having received

D. having not received

15.the salesman scolded the girl caught ___ and let her off.

A. to have stolen

B. to be stealing

C. to steal

D. stealing

16. “can’t you read ?” she said ____to the notice.

A. angrily pointing

B. and point angrily

C. angrily pointed

D. and angrily pointing

17.the missing boys were seen ____near the river.

A. playing

B. to be playing

C. play

D.to play

18._______to top of the hill, and you can see the whole of the town.

A. Get

B. To get

C. Getting

D. Having got CA B A D DAADBDCDCD A AA

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